Tag Archives: autism

What is autism? The diagnostic criteria explained

When you think about autism, you may, stereotypically, think of a boy, probably non-verbal, who may become violent at times. There is, however, also, the saying “when you’ve met 1 person with autism, you’ve met 1 person with autism”. That’s because Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is so wide varying in how each individual experiences it.

The DSM V is the official American manual for assessment and diagnosis for mental disorders. ‘5’ refers to the number of iterations it has gone through to arrive at the current recommendations for the criteria needed in order to officially diagnose someone with each particular disorder.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not a mental disorder, it is a neurodevelopmental disorder, some prefer the word condition. The medical model of ASD speaks about the individual’s deficits (see each criterion below)—in future blogs I’m planning to address why this may help to diagnose someone but may be unhelpful when trying to live on the spectrum.

It is interesting to note that Asperger’s Syndrome was a separate diagnosis in the DSM IV, however inconsistencies were found between different diagnosticians—therefore, in the DSM V there’s one umbrella term. (Some people who were diagnosed with Asperger’s still use the term, they are not wrong to use it but it is not used for people diagnosed today.)

DSM V—Autism Spectrum Disorder

Criterion A—Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across contexts, manifest by 3 of 3 symptoms.

This means the individual will have difficulties making connections with people socially in all environments, with friends, family and strangers. All of the following 3 criteria have to be present:

A1. Social initiation and response

Deficits in social‐emotional reciprocity; ranging from abnormal social approach and failure of normal back and forth conversation through reduced sharing of interests, emotions, and affect and response to total lack of initiation of social interaction.

This covers a whole range of struggles; some people with autism do not speak while others may not understand how to start or end conversations. Other examples include: not sharing in another’s achievements, one sided conversations and difficulty sharing in social games.

A2. Non-verbal communication

Deficits in non-verbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction.

This represents the individuals difficulty with eye contact, understanding body language or gestures. Some individuals may talk with an unusual pitch, intonation, rate or volume of voice while others may not use facial expressions or struggle to coordinate verbal and non-verbal communication.

A3. Social awareness and insights + the broader concepts of social interactions

Deficits in developing and maintaining relationships, appropriate to developmental level (beyond those with caregivers).

Individuals have difficulty adjusting to different social contexts e.g. inappropriate questioning, laughing or limited understanding about other’s needs. Difficulties sharing imaginative play and making friends. Children may prefer to play with people much older or younger than themselves or to spend time on their own. Some individuals may appear to have a complete lack of interest in other people.

Criterion B—Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, at least 2 of 4 symptoms:

B1. Atypical speech and body movements

Stereotyped or repetitive speech, motor movements, or use of objects.

Examples vary between individuals but could include: unusual speech such as pedantic, jargon, echolalia or neologisms; repetitive hand movements such as flapping or clapping, whole body movements, facial movements (grimacing) or excessive teeth grinding.

B2. Rituals and resistance to change

Excessive adherence to routines, ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior, or excessive resistance to change.

While this may look like a need for control, individuals struggle with a need for routine and struggle with change. Even thinking patterns can be rigid such that there’s an inability to understand humour. Extreme distress will be observed if change is forced upon the individuals without any support.

B3. Preoccupations with objects or topics

Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus.

Overly perfectionist views with preoccupation in unusual inanimate objects or non-relevant, non-functioning parts of objects. Individuals may have incredibly interest in specific subjects—on face value it may not seem unusual until the depth of the interest is understood.

B4. Atypical sensory behaviours

Hyper‐or hypo‐reactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of environment.

Individuals may find any kind of sensory input overwhelming or may not respond to it at all. An apparent indifference to pain/heat/cold may be observed. This may mean that they explore objects in unusual ways and seek out overt sensory input.

Criterion C—Symptoms must be present in early childhood

But may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities.

Criterion D—Symptoms together limit and impair everyday functioning.

Although the individual may have learnt to mask from a young age, thus the impairment may appear subtle to the observer, within the individual, the impact of their symptoms will be profound.

Additional symptoms and co-morbid conditions

People diagnosed with autism may experience all sorts of other symptoms/difficulties. These many be related to their autism or may be a co-morbid condition. Symptoms that may be experienced/observed include (but certainly not limited to):

  • Shutdowns – someone who can usually speak/communicate well, becomes uncommunicative/has trouble communicating due to excessive stress linked to all of traits A, B2 and B4.
  • Meltdowns – each individual will experience these differently, from excessive crying to extreme outbursts of anger/aggression. In children, this may look like tantrums; adults may feel them coming on and try desperately to suppress them for as long as possible (weeks-months sometimes) but they are a sign of extreme overwhelm and are particularly linked to traits B2 and B4 above.
  • High levels of anxiety – due to the world being set up for neurotypicals, it can be incredibly daunting for an autistic to attempt navigation. When communication doesn’t go to plan, sensations are overwhelming or routines are disrupted, feelings can become hard to bear.
  • Taking longer to process events/trauma – a particular event may not cause any problems for a neurotypical person but an autistic individual may struggle to process what has happened. This is linked to traits B4 and the A above, no matter how well the autistic person works to overcome their difficulties, managing the sensory input and processing it will always be difficult.
  • Difficulties managing physical health problems – this may be due to an inability to recognise signals from the body or having a higher or lower pain tolerance than the neurotypical population. This can lead to individuals becoming very ill before seeking help or taking longer to recover from illnesses. Some individuals with autism struggle with knowing when their body is hungry, satiated or when they need the toilet.
  • Loneliness – people with autism still have the same human needs to be loved and to love but communicate in a different way. They may not know that their desires stem from standard human instincts and require support.
  • Self-harm and suicidal behaviour – due to severe stress individuals with autism can be driven to extremely dangerous coping mechanisms. See previous blog in “mental health for all”.

Co-morbid conditions include:

  • Learning Disability
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Eating Disorders
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder
  • Conduct Disorder
  • Personality Disorder

Please look out for future blogs when I’ll be explaining more about my experience, including why females are more likely to be diagnosed later than males, whether a formal diagnosis is necessary for support and why there’s such a link between eating disorders and autism.

World Mental Health Day–Mental Health for All

The theme for this year’s World Mental Health Day, October 10th 2020 is “Mental Health for All”. This is a great subject for this year as so many people are struggling with the current pandemic for all sorts of reasons.

The subject means something special for me as I’ve spent my life feeling like I’m different, I don’t fit in, I don’t know how to do the stuff other people do so easily and I don’t know why.

A little while ago, we realised why – I’m autistic.

This may come as a surprise to some who know me, or it may make perfect sense to others! To me, it’s really helped things fall into place.

Previous to this, lots of things didn’t make sense, I’d had long periods of mental illness and while I’d managed to carve a recovered life (with lots of support, medication and various therapies) I still really struggled with general life and it was difficult to understand why. Below are just a few examples of things I struggle with that are now explained by autistic traits. It’s important to remember that this is my experience and that this will not be typical for everyone on the spectrum.

  • I’m incredibly sensitive to sounds but had been putting this down to being “highly sensitive” and an extreme introvert. These labels helped to some extent but didn’t quite explain why I would find a noisy environment completely exhausting. My sense of smell and touch are also extraordinarily sensitive.
  • I have a very small number of close friends because I struggle to make and keep friends. A lot of people see a more “socially acceptable version” of me because I feel they would judge the real me.
  • I’m easy overwhelmed by misunderstandings and confused by unexpected situations. I know I have intelligence but sometimes feel I lack common sense–this isn’t true, it’s just how it feels. It’s been awful not knowing why I can’t see things the way other do.
  • Things sometimes get stuck on a loop in my head. Hyper-focus and an eye for detail can be seen as a positive thing but it’s felt negative when other people can move on. It’s not that I’m deliberately holding a grudge, it’s that things affect me more deeply than they do other people.Stone brain breaking apart with cogs inside
  • I’ve always understood that there are unwritten social rules but I’ve struggled to know what they are. As I’ve grown up I’ve managed to hide the fact that I don’t understand and I “laugh along” but I’m hiding (masking) a huge amount of confusion and anxiety.

As I came to terms with the diagnosis, I realised I’m actually not odd, weird or wrong, I’m just neurodivergent.

All this time, I’ve been desperately trying to be “normal” and I’ve suddenly discovered that I am!

However, learning that I’m on the spectrum has been a mixed blessing!

The downside of the diagnosis is that it comes with discrimination and stigma.

[People with] autism spectrum disorder…are more likely to experience mental health problems than the general population.

This can be because there are fewer resources…more negative life events, and [they] face stigma and discrimination from people and services… Biology and genetics may also increase the likelihood of developing a mental health problem.

Mind

If you read my most recent blog you will have seen that I experienced horrendous discrimination at the hands of an ex-employer. This was because I disclosed to my employer the difficulties I was having in relation to being autistic, particularly in relation to the social side of things. I liked to keep my work and social life separate. You won’t find me gossiping around the water cooler or taking an extended lunch break while I chat about my weekend with colleagues.

I can understand the theory behind those “water cooler moments”. I know bonding with work colleagues is important. Unfortunately, I’ve never liked doing it and now I’ve found out I’m autistic, I know why. I find these moments excruciatingly awkward and fatiguing and I simple don’t benefit from trying to socialise with my colleagues!

There were numerous ways they discriminated against me and the fact that I’m covered under the Equality Act made no difference to my ex-employer. When just getting up and going to work every day takes every ounce every energy you have, finding energy to fight for my rights was impossible.

Autistic adults who do not have a learning disability are 9 times more likely to die from suicide.

Autistica

As well as reasons in line with the general population such as difficult life events, feelings of hopelessness and physical or mental health conditions, people with autism also have additional difficulties that could lead to suicidal feelings:

  • Delays in receiving a diagnosis–from personal experience, struggling with feeling there’s something “wrong” but not knowing what it is feels incredibly difficult.
  • Difficulties accessing support–as with mental health services, poor resourcing means that adults with autism aren’t receiving the support they need.
  • High levels of unemployment–it’s very common for people with autism to be over-educated and under-employed, as I am.

People with autism are vulnerable because the way they communicate and interact with other people is different. They have difficulty communicating their thoughts and feelings and may not be able to communicate their suicidal thoughts in a way that someone else can understand. They may not even know that what’s going on inside them is “suicidal thoughts”. I spent years in mental health services being judged for “acting out” because I didn’t have the words to explain my feelings–it now makes sense, why it took me years to find the words.

I need to remember that no matter what label or diagnosis I may have, I’m still me and that will never change. Self-acceptance is an incredibly powerful gift. If you know me, don’t worry about treating me differently. With all our similarities and differences, something we all have in common is that we’re human and we’re all stumbling through life as best we can—this is something genuinely beautiful we can connect over no matter what else is going on in our lives.

A few things you might find interesting:

  • You say “autism” to most people and they think of “Rainman”, however the experience of autism is unique to every individual–Anthony Hopkins was diagnosed with autism in his 70s.”Anthony Hopkins
  • It is no longer thought to be “an extension of the male brain”–this is out-dated thinking.
  • We are not “all on the spectrum” or “all a little bit autistic”–some people may be able to relate to some of the traits but the spectrum is not linear with non-autistic (neuro-typical) at one end and seriously autistic at the other. Check out this video or this comic strip to learn a new way of thinking about the spectrum.
  • Functioning labels are unhelpful–you may observe people as high functioning because they can communicate verbally and may have “low” support needs but it is unhelpful to make a judgment about what their life is like behind closed doors.
  • Autism isn’t being over diagnosed–some people with autism (especially females) are particularly good at masking therefore are more likely to go undiagnosed. These people are now being recognised.

Thank you so much for reading this! It feels huge to be sharing. It’s hard to open up about something like this; having shared with a few people, I’ve had a very mixed reaction, from blatant discrimination to acceptance and loyalty.

I hope this will be the first of many blogs that walk the cross-over between mental health and autism.

What do you do if you just can’t talk about it?

A large contributing factor to why I got ill was that I didn’t talk about my feelings. Whatever I experienced I thought it was bad so I pushed it down, ignored it, pretended I was fine and put a brave face on. Even when I was getting very unwell, I had no idea what was going on, I had no language to describe my inner turmoil so I just kept quiet and things, unsurprisingly, got worse.
I have learnt, through various therapies, how to talk about my feelings in a healthy way – I don’t talk about my feelings all the time but if things don’t feel right, I have ways to communicate and talking through my struggles, this means things are easier to understand and manage.
Whenever I hear about someone self harming in some way, whether it’s cutting, over dosing, drinking to excess or disordered eating – I do my best to persuade them to find a way to talk about what’s going on. It’s often about who you talk to as well as what you say, sometimes it’s about writing things down, but I think putting your thoughts and feelings into words is vital for mental health recovery.
However, what if things are so overwhelming, words just won’t come?!
Or, what if, due to another condition, a developmental condition or learning disability, you’re never going to be able to talk/communicate the way other people do?
On my mind is a young lady who’s desperately unhappy, she has self harmed in the passed but recently felt so hopeless, she tried to take her own life – this story, unfortunately, is not rare – sadly, this young lady also has Asperger’s syndrome, which is now considered part of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). People with ASD have problems with, amongst other things, social interactions and communication.
I would always advise anyone in mental distress to seek professional help but sometimes there are things we can do to help ourselves, so here are some of my thoughts when words just aren’t the answer:
Exercise
Whether it’s anxiety, depression or other symptoms such as psychosis, some form of exercise has many benefits:

  • Grounding – it helps people stay in touch with reality, rather than spiraling off down a disordered thought stream or into a reality that causes more harm than good.
  • Endorphins – ‘happy hormones’ proven to be released when we exercise
  • Release of aggression – some people (usually females) force their aggression inward while others may express aggression/anger towards other people, either physically or verbally. Some forms of exercise, especially something like kick boxing can be brilliant for releasing pent up aggression.
  • Can be done in community or solitarily – introverts and extroverts take their energy from different sources and exercise can provide either the company or the solitude needed.
  • It can be a good distraction – taking pressure off talking and going for a walk with someone can actually make the taking side of things easier. Just being in nature, for example gardening, can have this effect as well.
  • It’s generally good for your physical health as well!

There are many forms of exercise from formal team games to walking, running or cycling on your own, or classes such as body combat, Zumba or martial arts. It may help to do something as a regular outlet or just do it when feelings feel particularly uncomfortable.
Art or creativity
You don’t have to be Salvador Dali or the latest Banksy to pick up a paint brush, some crayons, a pencil or some charcoal – people find all sorts of ways of expressing themselves through art. I’m not particularly creative but when angry it can be incredibly therapeutic to press down hard with a pencil and scratch away at the paper. Tearing paper or fabric can also be calming or helpful for a destructive mindset.
Liz Atkin uses charcoal drawing to directly manage her mental illness. Her story is fascinating and can be found here.
Adult colouring is a bit of a craze at the moment. The way I used it was as a distraction, it was something that could consume my focus and while I was doing it, it helps me stop my destructive thinking.
It may also be useful to make collages of words or pictures from magazines, this may express an acute emotion (eg anxiety) or overriding issues (eg loneliness) and this links to the next thing to try.

Use pictures to communicate
There are specific systems such as the Picture Exchange Communication System but it doesn’t have to be that formal. Use Google Images and search for what speaks to you, it may be pictures of people or landscapes but it could just be colours or shapes. You don’t have to know what it means or why it’s important but if you use this method a few times, you may get used to expressing your feelings in this way.
Punch a pillow
You may not call it anger, but if you feel like you have lots of energy and don’t know what to do with it it may be helpful to punch a pillow. This is helpful to prevent keeping energy/emotions locked up, it’s important to let it out as people have a tendency to either take emotions out on other people (through verbal or physical aggression) or on themselves (by self harming).
Mindfulness/meditation
Mindfulness can be a complex concept to understand but at its most basic level, it’s about being aware and then sitting with how things (feelings/situations/thoughts) are, as they are, without judgment or desire to change them. If we manage to do this, we can learn to manage all sorts difficult or uncomfortable feelings.
Meditation takes a number of forms and may include elements of relaxation techniques as well. This link to YouTube may be a good place to start.
Even if it doesn’t sound like ‘your thing’, sometimes it’s worth trying something new, just to see what it’s like. Type, mindfulness or meditation into YouTube and have a look at what’s out there. The most important thing with this is not to get cross, upset, angry or to judge how you’re doing with the exercises, there is no right or wrong way to do it. Talk to yourself with compassion when trying something new.
Pets as therapy (PAT)
Spending time with animals can be an amazing healer for some people. A loved family pet can evoke calmness in any situation. There are also special animals trained for therapy and horses are used in some specialist centres.

No matter what the situation, there is a way through, some times we just need to be a little more creative with how we get through.